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Articles, white papers, and technical blog posts. Click on an article to begin searching by topic and subscribe to recieve updates as new content is posted.

13 min read
Introducing the Z-Application-Bridging the gap between bare metal and rtos

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Adhering to functional safety standards is costly and time consuming. For an application to be compliant with the most demanding SIL (IEC 61508), ASIL (ISO 26262), Class (IEC 62304), or DAL (DO-178) in industrial, automotive, medical or avionics applications...

12 min read
Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) -Pt 2- LynxOS-178 10G network benchmarkS

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Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) virtualizes network interface cards (NICs) to allow a single NIC to present itself as dozens of virtual NICs to a hypervisor. It is a hardware standard, part of the PCI-SIG (Peripheral Component Interconnect - Special...

10 min read
Who Needs a Hypervisor?

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The standard benefits of a hypervisor are well known and often touted. Every RTOS has its hypervisor and they do genuinely help embedded designers to:

  1. Partition multicore processors into virtual machines; an elegant way to consolidate OSs
  2. Isolate guests; to...
14 min read
Edge Computing is Here. What's Next?

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Industry 4.0? Edge computing? Call it what you will, the fact remains that our industry moves slowly. Obstacles must be overcome before we can claim that edge computing has evolved from theories and experiments to true industrial deployment. The resolution of the...

11 min read
What is Cache Coloring and How Does it Work?

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There are substantial challenges in building secure and safe systems on multicore processors (MCPs). Last level cache contention is undoubtedly the largest source of multicore interference, and a significant challenge for real-time systems. Here we discuss a...

6 min read
On reference architectures

What is a reference architecture?

The term “architecture” seems to be in ever increasing use in its technological context. As an extrapolation from the construction term that Frank Lloyd Wright would have been familiar with, its definition as the “overall design of a computing...

4 min read
Intel’s first DO-254 hardware certification evidence – it’s on a MultiCore

WELL DONE, INTEL®!

Over the years I’ve read lots of datasheets. They can sometimes be heavy on marketing buzzwords and prone to sweeping statements that oversell their solutions and gloss over gaps. I read this new Solution Brief from Intel and it stopped me in my tracks. This...

5 min read
Conformance vs Compliance – What's in a Word?

Anyone who travels with a laptop soon develops a bittersweet relationship with international power adaptor plugs. Sure, they turn your homeland plug into something that approximates to what’s needed. But we’re all too familiar with the questionable connections, the weight that...

17 min read
What is the Cost of a Real-time Operating System (RTOS)?

INTRODUCTION

Choosing an RTOS, regardless of the cost, involves many considerations, including accommodating your specific hardware architecture, the scalability of the RTOS, response requirements, peripheral support, scheduler, services, libraries, middleware, graphical tools,...

25 min read
Challenges Building Safe Multicore Systems

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At the time of writing, no multicore safety critical software systems exist. That is, no system that utilizes a multi-core processor to execute multiple applications in parallel has been certified for flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the US...

3 min read
Best Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) Vendors (2020)

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Lynx Software Technologies has built and supported real-time operating systems (RTOSes) since 1988. We have witnessed hardware and embedded software technologies evolve and have supported our customers through the design, development, integration, certification,...

19 min read
What Is A Separation Kernel?

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Having built both separation kernels and real-time operating systems—and supported customers using both across a wide range of industries—we are familiar with the pros and cons of each software technology, as well as their security, safety, reliability, and...

3 min read
Field Notes: Safety-Critical Systems Symposium 2020

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Lynx exhibited at the 28th annual Safety-Critical Systems Symposium  on February 11th to 13th 2020 in York, United Kingdom. The SSS is hosted by the UK Safety-Critical Systems Club, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to raise awareness and facilitate...

4 min read
TC-16/51: Adding Bottom Up Interference Analysis for MCPs

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I hadn't heard of "bottom up" avionics certification before I read FAA's TC-16/51.  But now, looking back at it, I think the authors from Thales Avionics, including Xavier Jean, PhD, proposed a big change in perspective.  In their own words, here's their...

20 min read
What Are the Problems with Embedded Linux?

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INTRODUCTION

Linux is ubiquitous. It runs most internet servers, inside Android* smartphones, and is used on millions of embedded systems that, in the past, ran Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSes). Linux can (and should) be used were possible for embedded...

5 min read
Lynx & ENSCO Demonstrate Avionics Solutions at DSEI JAPAN 2019

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The most formidable challenges of modern avionics development programs are often centered around the safety certification process and the corresponding requirements and costs. Equally as challenging to any large development program are the design and...

7 min read
Overarching Properties: An Alternative to DO-178

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Overarching Properties—an alternative design assurance approach to DO-178C—marks the biggest change in airborne software safety certification since DO-178B was unveiled in 1992. Intended to be more efficient and flexible than DO-178C, the approach was introduced...

20 min read
What Are the Most Popular Real-Time Operating Systems?
WHO ARE WE?

Lynx Software Technologies has built and supported real-time operating systems (RTOSes) since 1988. We have witnessed hardware and embedded software technologies evolve and have supported our customers through the design, development, integration, certification,...

20 min read
Do You Need a Real-Time Operating System?

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Do Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSes) consistently provide the most effective platform for realizing your embedded software system design?  Most RTOS vendors seem to think so, frequently citing RTOS benefits while rarely discussing the disadvantages.  Too...

9 min read
Embedded Best Practices at Arm Tech-con

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Lynx participated in this year’s Arm TechCon with a booth in the expo hall, where we demoed Lynx MOSA.ic and its components — LynxSecure®, Buildroot Linux, LynxOS-178®, and Lynx Simple Applications (which are bare-metal apps).  It was great to see people walk...

16 min read
How to Choose a Real-Time Operating System

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Choosing an RTOS is not as simple as choosing a car.  We know about cars; we know their strengths and weaknesses and we intuitively understand compromises like performance vs practicality or luxury vs price.  We see all kinds of vehicles on the road, so the range...

11 min read
What Are POSIX Processes and Virtual Memory?

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WHO  IS LYNX?

Lynx Software Technologies has built and supported real-time operating systems (RTOSes) since 1988. We have witnessed hardware and embedded software technologies evolve and have supported our customers through the design, development, integration,...

6 min read
Realizing modern Automotive Software Environments

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The complexity of today’s automobiles is increasing with every new model on the market.  A modern car can contain hundreds of electronic control units and with connectivity and autonomy becoming commonplace, this is increasing dramatically as we enter the 2020s. ...

6 min read
What is SR-IOV and Why is It Important for embedded devices?

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Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) is the complex name for a technology beginning to find its way into embedded devices.  SR-IOV is a hardware standard that allows a PCI Express device – typically a network interface card (NIC) – to present itself as...

3 min read
Multi-core cache allocation technology (CAT) demo

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This week saw LYNX’s cache partitioning feature for Lynx MOSA.ic™ demonstrated for the first time at the Collins Aerospace Embedded Computing Conference in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Cache partitioning is a new feature of Lynx MOSA.ic™ released in September 2019 and...

12 min read
What is the Cost of a Board Support Package?

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INTRODUCTION

The board support package (BSP) is the glue software that allows an embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) to run on a specific target board.  Creating a BSP for your chosen board is a detailed software engineering task that takes 2 to 8 weeks. ...

4 min read
Field Notes: Sept 2019 Face™ TIM

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Last week I was able to spend several days at the Open Group Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE™) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) and consortium meetings.  For those who are not familiar with either the Open Group or FACE™, the Open Group is a...

9 min read
What Are the Benefits of POSIX for Embedded Systems?

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Lynx Software Technologies is committed to open standards. POSIX®—an open standard based on UNIX operating systems and their APIs—brings a powerful set of features and capabilities to the table for embedded application development, resulting in benefits to...

4 min read
What is a Reusable Software Component?

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A DO-178B/C Reusable Software Component (RSC) is a software collection that is recognized as meeting the requirements of RTCA/DO-178B/C and that may be used on more than one project without having to regenerate certification artifacts.

The FAA grants RSC...

8 min read
CAST-32A: Significance and Implications

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CAST-32A presents the coordinated position of avionics certification authorities regarding Multi-Core Processors (MCPs).  While today’s aerospace ecosystem could benefit from the use of MCPs, before CAST-32A was published, FAA/EASA had not yet devised a means to...

3 min read
Design Prevails: Protecting Systems from Meltdown and Spectre

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Meltdown and Spectre provide insight into building more resilient systems.  Less covered in the press than the vulnerabilities themselves, problems with patching, or “timelines to discovery” is that some systems were, in fact, prepared and protected— requiring no...