22 min read

Challenges Building Safe Multicore Systems

By Tim Loveless | Principal Solutions Architect on Jun 15, 2020 8:12:09 AM

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At the time of writing, no multicore safety critical software systems exist. That is, no system that utilizes a multi-core processor to execute multiple applications in parallel has been certified for flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the US or by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). As such, safety critical avionics systems are missing out on the advances in compute performance, power consumption, and miniaturization enjoyed by laptop, smartphone, and internet users worldwide.

Topics: Multicore Safety TC-16/51 CAST-32A Certification MCP embedded systems hardware development hardware interference software certifications DO-178
23 min read

What Are the Most Popular Real-Time Operating Systems?

By Ian Ferguson | VP Marketing on Nov 14, 2019 10:49:00 AM

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Lynx Software Technologies has built and supported real-time operating systems (RTOSes) since 1988. We have witnessed hardware and embedded software technologies evolve and have supported our customers through the design, development, integration, certification, deployment, and support of software systems across mission-critical applications in avionics, industrial, automotive, medical, and other markets.

Topics: Multicore linux rtos embedded systems development real-time
18 min read

Do You Need a Real-Time Operating System?

By Chris Barlow | Technical Product Manager on Nov 11, 2019 10:29:00 AM

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Do Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSes) consistently provide the most effective platform for realizing your embedded software system design?  Most RTOS vendors seem to think so, frequently citing RTOS benefits while rarely discussing the disadvantages.  Too often, the question "Do You Need an RTOS?" is interpreted, "Which RTOS Do You Need?"

Topics: Multicore Systems Architecture rtos embedded systems development real-time
9 min read

Embedded Best Practices at Arm Tech-con

By James Deutch | Principal Field Applications Engineer on Oct 17, 2019 2:13:00 PM

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Lynx participated in this year’s Arm TechCon with a booth in the expo hall, where we demoed Lynx MOSA.ic and its components — LynxSecure®, Buildroot Linux, LynxOS-178®, and Lynx Simple Applications (which are bare-metal apps).  It was great to see people walk down the hallways and stop in the aisle to examine the Automotive demo and Industrial demos.

The concepts behind the demos apply across multiple industries and use cases; we simply chose to highlight these concepts in the context of these two markets for the purpose of putting together the demos.  For more information on the Automotive demo, you can read Chris Barlow's blog post.  Below you can see a close-up of the architectural graphic shown on the notebook’s screen:

Topics: Demo Multicore Safety MCP Least Privilege Systems Architecture Arm Tech Con Security Trusted Codebase embedded systems partitioning privilege escalation development real-time Technical Blog
16 min read

How to Choose a Real-Time Operating System

By Tim Loveless | Principal Solutions Architect on Oct 14, 2019 10:32:00 AM

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Choosing an RTOS is not as simple as choosing a car.  We know about cars; we know their strengths and weaknesses and we intuitively understand compromises like performance vs practicality or luxury vs price.  We see all kinds of vehicles on the road, so the range of available cars is obvious. When choosing an RTOS, the middle ground is crowded—dozens of general-purpose RTOSes with broadly similar characteristics compete.  They all have a scheduler, services, libraries, middleware, technical support, and graphical tools. Any one of them could genuinely do a good job and so choosing between them is a mixture of quantitative metrics (like features and price) and qualitative measures (like past-experience, personal-preference, and reputation). 

Topics: Multi-core Avionics Lynx MOSA.ic™ Multicore Safety MCP Systems Architecture Security linux embedded linux rtos embedded systems development real-time
12 min read

What is the Cost of a Board Support Package?

By Tim Loveless | Principal Solutions Architect on Oct 1, 2019 10:35:00 AM

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Topics: Multicore Certification MCP embedded systems TCO hardware development BSPs board support costs
4 min read

What is a Reusable Software Component?

By Whitfield Thomas | Content Manager on Mar 11, 2019 10:45:00 AM

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A DO-178B/C Reusable Software Component (RSC) is a software collection that is recognized as meeting the requirements of RTCA/DO-178B/C and that may be used on more than one project without having to regenerate certification artifacts.

The FAA grants RSC acceptance as part of a normal certification process, provided that the applicant complies with the guidance policy defined in FAA Advisory Circular AC 20-148. The acceptance allows future users of the DO-178B/C RSC to deploy the software without the added cost and risk of re-certification. This applies to components such as operating systems and networking protocols, that can then be reused (in unadulterated form) across hardware platforms. 

Why is a Reusable Software Component Important?

All software developers reuse what they create. But compliance with DO-178B/C makes reuse difficult because it often requires expensive re-certification efforts. Until now, there was no standard approach to reuse of safety-critical software.

Is It Just a Set of Artifacts?

The LynxOS-178® RSC is more than just a set of DO-178B/C artifacts. In fact the RSC follows the guidance of AC 20-148 by addressing the most difficult and critical areas of certification: integration with multiple applications at various levels of DO-178B/C criticality. The documentation set includes a detailed partitioning and interface analysis that focuses on time, space and resource partitioning as well as timing margin analysis so developers can allocate budgets to use of operating system services. The set of RSC guidance documentation includes requirements, design data, test suites and coverage analysis to meet DO-178B/C requirements.

LynxOS-178 RSC for DO-178B/C Certification

The LynxOS-178 RTOS is the first and only time and space-partitioned, FAA-accepted RSC. LynxOS-178 offers the interoperability benefits of POSIX® along with support for the ARINC 653 APplication EXecutive (APEX). The LynxOS-178 RSC is designed to be hardware-agnostic, so no changes are required to move the RSC onto other hardware platforms. The LynxOS-178 RSC acceptance applies to a family of PowerPC® processors, including the PPC 75x, 74xx. 4xx, 603 and IBM 970.

Economic Benefits of the RSC for Embedded Projects

The economic value of an RSC lies in its ability to do three things:

  1. Reduce engineering labor
  2. Reduce program risk
  3. Reduce cost

When an RSC is properly verified using the foresight of future use, then it is possible to perform verification to most DO-178B/C objectives and not have to revisit these activities if the RSC is not modified in future projects. The LynxOS-178 RSC provides integrators with guidance on how to integrate the RSC into applications and retain certification credit for the RSC.

More importantly, the LynxOS-178 RSC artifacts provide “educational value” to the integrator that reduces engineering labor. This educational value is provided in the form of written guidance and tests that help the integrator assimilate their applications on top of the LynxOS-178 RSC in a timely manner.

This educational value of the LynxOS-178 RSC artifacts provides integrators with a savings of 3-6 months of engineering labor over conventional DO-178B/C artifacts. This learning economy can be consistently applied in future projects. The LynxOS-178 RSC also reduces program risk by focusing certification audits where they should be focused: on the DO-178B/C objectives that remain to be satisfied and the integration of the component into an application.

With a standard set of DO-178B/C artifacts, a certification auditor can examine any part of the artifacts, even those areas that have been examined by someone else. On many occasions, developers who envision low risk with submission of standard DO-178B/C artifacts have found themselves the subject of auditors’ qualitative interpretations that result in added explanations, action items and even additional verification work resulting in a prolonged project schedule.  An auditor’s job is to scrutinize results closely and aggressively find weaknesses in the verification process. Very often it’s impossible to get through an audit the first time, even if the software has been approved before.

The RSC concept avoids this dilemma by focusing the engineering and auditing effort on software integration, not previously verified operating system functions such as message queues.

Lynx Software Technologies’ LynxOS-178 RSC acceptance can provide integrators with a savings of 6-9 months of schedule risk over conventional DO-178B/C artifacts.  This risk economy can be consistently applied in future projects. Lastly, the value of the LynxOS-178 RSC is to reduce overall cost to our customers. Lynx Software Technologies’ LynxOS-178 real-time operating system comprises approximately 60,000 lines of code.

The effort to verify a time- and space-partitioned operating system of this size is tens of person-years of effort.  The concept is simple; an accepted RSC that meets DO-178B/C objectives saves the integrator the cost of verification of an operating system.

Leverage the RSC for Your Embedded Project

Lynx has over 30 years’ experience in helping customers across avionics, automotive, and industrial markets to realize the benefits of software reuse for their complex safety- and security-critical embedded software systems. To learn more about how to leverage a Reusable Software Component (RSC) for your next project, please direct your inquiries to inside@lynx.com or fill out the form linked to the button below, and a representative will reach out to you within 1-2 business days.

GET STARTED

Topics: Avionics Multicore FAA Safety Certification MCP Trusted Codebase architecture rtos embedded systems TCO TTM partitioning development real-time POSIX® costs rsc reusable software
8 min read

CAST-32A: Significance and Implications

By Mark Brown | Systems Architect on Nov 15, 2018 10:36:00 AM

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CAST-32A presents the coordinated position of avionics certification authorities regarding Multi-Core Processors (MCPs).  While today’s aerospace ecosystem could benefit from the use of MCPs, before CAST-32A was published, FAA/EASA had not yet devised a means to obtain certification credit for safety-critical software deployed to an MCP.  Toward that end, the CAST-32A position paper identifies topics of concern that could impact the safety, performance, and integrity of DO-178C aviation software deployed to MCP(s). For each topic, the paper provides a rationale that explains why these topics are of concern and proposes objectives to address the concern. (CAST-32A, “Purpose”, p. 3)

Topics: Avionics Multicore FAA Safety TC-16/51 CAST-32A Certification MCP embedded systems development real-time