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What Are the Most Popular Real-Time Operating Systems (2020)?

Most Popular Real-Time Operating Systems (2020)

  • Deos (DDC-I)
  • embOS (SEGGER)
  • FreeRTOS (Amazon)
  • Integrity (Green Hills Software)
  • Keil RTX (ARM)
  • LynxOS (Lynx Software Technologies)
  • MQX (Philips NXP / Freescale)
  • Nucleus (Mentor Graphics)
  • Neutrino (BlackBerry)
  • PikeOS (Sysgo)
  • SafeRTOS (Wittenstein)
  • ThreadX (Microsoft Express Logic)
  • µC/OS (Micrium)
  • VDK (Analog Devices)
  • VxWorks (Wind River)
  • Zephyr (Linux Foundation)

Why Publish a List of Popular Real-Time Operating Systems?

Lynx Software Technologies has built and supported real-time operating systems (RTOSes) since 1988. We have witnessed hardware and embedded software technologies evolve and have supported our customers through the design, development, integration, certification, deployment, and support of software systems across mission-critical applications in avionics, industrial, automotive, medical, and other markets.

We have learned that over the years that, depending on the type of system being built, our RTOS products may not always provide the best fit. And that’s OK. We want you to choose Lynx products because they make the most sense for your project and understanding your options is critical to that process. That is why we would like to help answer 2 of the most common (and related) operating system questions we get when we first start talking to prospective customers who want to make an informed decision:

  • Who are your competitors?
  • What are the most popular RTOSes?

Studies are typically published annually from surveys of embedded software engineers. One of the more popular and accessible studies is the AspenCore Embedded Markets Study (a relatively small survey size; view slides 48 onwards). There are also reports created by analyst firms, such as this report by VDC Research (link to request for Executive Brief). Several people have indicated that sites which usually provide good summaries, such as Wikipedia’s RTOS comparison list, are sometimes out of date, so we decided to outline a list of popular RTOSes here.

How to Group RTOS Companies?

There are several ways to group providers of real-time operating systems:

  1. Semiconductor companies. There is fierce competition between chip manufacturers, especially for IOT applications where the winners are not yet determined. Providing complementary software is focused on shortening the development cycle for a customer and, frankly in our opinion, providing some lock-in to that specific supplier. We have labeled those in orange text in the table below.
  2. Software companies whose primary business model is to generate revenue from operating systems. Several of these are looking for ways to use other elements of software to lock customers into their (revenue-generating) operating systems. These are colored in green.
  3. Software companies whose primary business model is to generate revenue from other elements of a system, such as tools. These, including Lynx, are colored blue.
  4. Other; These are colored grey.

How to Organize the List?

Some may ask why RT Linux is missing. The answer depends on the system you are building. If that system is a car driving along a freeway at 70mph, an unmanned aerial vehicle, or an industrial robot on a production line, then the system must be guaranteed to respond to a particular condition in a very short space of time. FreeRTOS can show some examples of it taking less than 100 clock cycles; with the speed of today's MCUs, that is in the microseconds range. So for safety critical systems, we don't see the OS that drives the safety critical fundamentals of the platform using any form of Linux. We do, however, see Linux as an extremely effective way to bring in a broad set of functionality into the system, with both Linux and an RTOS or bare-metal environments being run concurrently on a secure hypervisor. 

To the best of our knowledge, FreeRTOS is the most widely deployed real time operating system. Given that this article is designed to be a reference guide with minimal judgments, we simply decided to list them in alphabetical order. Also note that this is not a list of “The Best RTOSes." It is, instead, a more complete list of popular RTOSes being used for various IoT and embedded projects. Included in the list are:

  • Links to the relevant developer webpage (simply click on the RTOS or on the company name)
  • A yes or no section on per-unit royalties
  • Brief summaries of each RTOS

If you feel we are missing an RTOS that should be included on this list, please let us know by emailing us at inside@lynx.com

 

Operating System

Company Name

Per Unit Royalties?

Summary

Deos

DDC-I

Yes

DDC-I is a privately held company founded originally in Denmark but now based out of Phoenix, AZ. The Deos RTOS targets those in the A&D market requiring DO-178 certification. We have received limited customer feedback on the product.

embOS

Segger

No

Segger is a German company with a long track record of delivering debugging equipment for embedded systems. embOS has been available for quite some time and is free for non-commercial use. The commercial model is royalty free, with the customer paying for access to the source code for distribution rights in production systems. Focus is on industrial and automotive, with certifications for the appropriate QA standards in those areas.

FreeRTOS

Owned by Amazon since 2017

No

As mentioned above, FreeRTOS is thought to be the most adopted RTOS for designs. It supports a diverse range of processor architectures and the acquisition by Amazon has driven increased investment in engineering. More software development now in AWS Greengrass to directly target platforms based on this RTOS.

Integrity

Green Hills Software

Yes

Privately owned company based out of Santa Barbara, California. Cadence invested in the company in early 2019. Historical competitor of Lynx in the A&D segment. Majority of revenue made from services.

Keil RTX

Arm (Acquired by SoftBank in 2016)

No

This is an RTOS made available royalty free for Cortex-M based microcontrollers. Does not appear to be a core focus area for the company on a forwarding-going basis.

LynxOS

Lynx Software Technologies

Yes

Privately held company founded in 1985 (formerly LynuxWorks) and based out of San Jose, California. Historical focus on A&D markets for customers needing DO-178 certification, with growing expansion into Automotive, Industrial, and IT Infrastructure. Native POSIX® RTOSes + Virtualization technologies.

MQX

NXP

No

Good base functionality. The challenge is that given the ownership, end OEMs are concerned about being locked-in to a specific silicon supplier.

Nucleus

Mentor Graphics (Acquired by Siemens in 2017

No

Going back a decade, this was THE RTOS for the embedded space with a (pay for) source, royalty-free model. Its presence appears to have slowly declined as Mentor looked to monetize around other software, including the core staple of EDA.

PikeOS

Sysgo

Yes

German company headquartered in Mainz that has been historically focused on industrial and automotive markets. The RTOS seems to be less of a focus for the company on a forward going basis, with more activity around the hypervisor and Linux technologies.

Neutrino

QNX (Wholly owned subsidiary of Blackberry)

Yes

Neutrino is well known for its position in the automotive market as the dominant operating system for combustion engine management systems. Looking to extend this into new automotive segments.

SafeRTOS

Wittenstein

Yes

SafeRTOS is a ruggedized version of FreeRTOS for use in industrial environments. Benefits from being a simplified migration path from a widely understood technology.

ThreadX

Express Logic (Acquired by Microsoft in 2019)

No

Supports of a wide set of processor architectures. Still early to understand Microsoft’s specific plans for this operating system, but, so far, there seems to have been little change.

µC/OS

Micrium (Acquired by Silicon Labs in 2016)

No

Micrium is a subsidiary of Silicon Labs. We are unclear of µC/OS’s long-term direction for continued support outside Silicon Lab’s specific product needs.

VDK

Analog Devices

No

Analog Devices is a semiconductor company based out of Norwood, Massachusetts. VDK is their OS for their BlackFin family of DSPs.

VxWorks

Wind River (Divested from Intel in July 2018)

Yes

The historical leader in embedded operating systems. Offers the RTOS and a Linux product. VxWorks had historical footprint in networking, which appears to have eroded with the rise in Linux. Also present in a range of industrial and aerospace markets. Recently acquired a Linux security company, Starlab (2020).

Zephyr

Linux Foundation

No

An open source project hosted by the Linux Foundation. Intel was originally backing this quite strongly and we have quite high hopes for the adoption of this technology. It has been slower than several of us imagined, but NXP has recently been contributing code.

Do You Need a Real-Time Operating System?

Before you choose an RTOS, we strongly recommend that you make sure you absolutely need one. Real-time operating systems can, by their very nature, limit development and integration options that could immensely benefit your project. Too often, we see builders of embedded systems commit to an RTOS before fully evaluating their needs and considering the wide range of options before them. That is why we have published the following guides:

The right solution may end up being multiple operating systems running on one heterogenous platform. This has been the case in equipment like smartphones for some time. We envision this becoming the norm for a significantly broader set of industrial IoT, A&D, and automotive platforms, as system architects look to blend the real-time determinism response to inputs with operating systems that enable reuse of applications from Windows or Linux environments.

Your Next Project

Lynx has over 30 years’ experience in helping customers across avionics, automotive, and industrial markets to most efficiently realize their complex safety- and security-critical embedded software systems.
 
To learn more about how to leverage a heterogeneous design for your next project, please direct your inquiries to inside@lynx.com or fill out the form below, and a representative will reach out to you within 1-2 business days. 
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IAN FERGUSON

VP Marketing

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WHITFIELD THOMAS

Marketing Coordinator

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